9552532038 / 9822020130    HELPLINE: 020 67286728      appointment@lokmanyahospitals.in

  9552532038 / 9822020130    HELPLINE: 020 67286728      appointment@lokmanyahospitals.in

  9552532038 / 9822020130

 HELPLINE: 020 67286728

Shoulder Anatomy

KNEE ANATOMY

knee treatment
Knee Anatomy
  • The joint is primarily formed by the two large bones of the lower limb, the femur (thigh bone) and the tibia (shin bone). The patella (kneecap) articulates with the femur at the front of the knee.
  • The fibula joins with the tibia on the lateral (outside) side of the knee. Together, the femur, tibia and patella make three compartments (medial, lateral and patellofemoral).
  • Each of the bones has a bearing surface of articular or hyaline cartilage.
  •  Meniscus in each of the medial and lateral compartments. The menisci are like cushions or spacers and are made of fibrocartilage.

The direction of movement of the bones is controlled by the ligaments and the muscles make the joint move. The major ligaments are the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligaments (PCL) and the medial and lateral collateral ligaments. In addition, the collateral ligaments have important associated ligaments towards the back of the knee. The quadriceps muscle at the front of the thigh and the hamstring muscles at the back. Muscles attach to bones via tendons. The main tendons around the knee are the quadriceps and patellar tendons which attach to the top and bottom of the patella respectively. The Iliotibial band is like a tendon on the lateral side of the knee.

Knee is divided into three major compartments:

  • Medial compartment (the inside part of the knee)
  • Lateral compartment (the outside part)
  • Patellofemoral compartment (the front of the knee between the kneecap and thighbone)

ARTHROSCOPY – BASIC INTRODUCTION

Arthroscopy (also called arthroscopic or keyhole surgery) is minimally invasive surgical procedure in which an examination, diagnosis and treatment of damage to a joint is performed using an Arthroscope, which is an endoscope that is inserted into the joint through a small incision. Arthroscopy is the combination of 2 words Arthros (Joint) and Skopein (to Look) that means “to look inside the joint.”

Arthroscopy (also called arthroscopic or keyhole surgery) is minimally invasive surgical procedure in which an examination, diagnosis and treatment of damage to a joint is performed using an Arthroscope, which is an endoscope that is inserted into the joint through a small incision. Arthroscopy is the combination of 2 words Arthros (Joint) and Skopein (to Look) that means “to look inside the joint.”

Surgeons view the joint area on a video monitor, and can diagnose and repair to damaged joint tissue, such as ligaments. It is technically possible to do an arthroscopic examination of almost every joint, but is most commonly used for the knee, shoulder, elbow, wrist, ankle, foot, and hip. Most commonly Arthroscopy is done on Knee and Shoulder joint. Most commonly included procedures are in repairing cartilage and meniscus problems in the knee, and repairing rotator cuff tears in the shoulder.

Advantages

  • Minimally invasive unlike open surgery small incisions are made for the entry of Arthroscope and one for the surgical instruments to be used in the Joint cavity. This reduces recovery time due to minimal damage to adjacent connective tissue.
  • The surgical instruments are smaller than traditional instruments and there is less scarring, because of the smaller incisions
  • Length of stay in the hospital is also smaller
  • Patients’ fear element is also lesser and better acceptance than an open surgery.
  • Less financial burden on the patient

Limitations

  • Case selection is very important
  • Not useful in advanced Arthritis
  • Care is required in recovery phase

KNEE ARTHROSCOPY

Knee Anatomy

Arthroscopy is a popularly used minimally invasive surgical technique to diagnose and treat a host of knee problems that can occur due to various reasons.  Knee arthroscopy is a surgical procedure that allows Orthopedic surgeon to view the concerned knee joint by making a very small incision and inserting a tiny fiber optic telescope called the arthroscope into your knee to view the inside of the joint on a screen. The surgeon can then investigate a problem with the knee and, if necessary, correct the issue using small instruments within the Arthroscope.

The procedure is more often used in patients where the issue does not require joint replacement surgery. Patients who have experienced sudden knee injuries or have twisted their knee perhaps while playing some sport that may have caused misalignment of the bones; the best treatment is generally arthroscopy.  There are limited risks to the procedure and the outlook is good for most patients. Your recovery time and prognosis will depend on the severity of the knee problem and the complexity of the required procedure.

Arthroscopic surgery can diagnose and treat knee injuries, including:

  • Torn Ligament reconstruction (ACL / PCL RECONSTRUCTION)
  • Pieces of torn cartilage that are loose in the joint
  • Swollen synovium (the lining in the joint) Patellar balancing (LATERAL RELEASE / MEDIAL PLICATION)
  • Reconstruction patella that’s out of position
  • Removal of a Baker’s cyst
  • Removal or repair of torn meniscus (the cartilage between the bones in the knee) MENISCAL BALANCING / EXCISION / REPAIR
  • Ligament avulsion fixation
  • Removal of loose debris, infected tissue (DEBRIDEMENT / LAVAGE)
  • Removal of infected or diseased or neoplastic synovium (SYNOVECTOMY)
  • Trimming damaged cartilage (ABRASIONPLASTY)
  • Release of stiff joints – which may happen after injury or after surgery (ARTHROLYSIS)
Knee Arthroscopy

Brief Idea about the procedure

After proper consultation with the doctor and on the basis of medical history, and investigations including MRI proper planning is done.

Anaesthesia is given which may be General, Spinal or Local depending upon the condition and requirement.

The surgeon will begin by making a few small incisions in your knee. Sterile salt water or saline, will then pump in to expand your knee.

Knee Arthroscopy Treatment

This makes it easier for the surgeon to see inside the joint. The arthroscope enters one of the cuts and the surgeon will look around in your joint using the attached camera. The surgeon can see the images produced by the camera on the monitor in the operating room.

When the surgeon locates the problem in your knee, they may then insert small tools into the incisions to correct the issue. After the surgery, the surgeon drains the saline from your joint and closes your cuts with stitches.

Outcomes are generally good if performed by an experienced orthopedic surgeon, with  very less probability of development of complications.

Benefits of Knee Arthroscopy Treatment

  • It’s minimally invasive so the number of incisions are less
  • Since the surgical instrument is very sleek, the cuts made are smaller compared to the larger incisions made in open surgeries.
  • There is less joint pain and stiffness post the surgery.
  • The recovery time is quicker and patient can without much gap return to their normal routines.

Depending on the diagnosis of the patient’s condition and subjective to his case, extent of damage, knee arthroplasty or an alternative suitable treatment will be advised by the surgeon.